Reference Library - XRF

The links below to references in the literature which include analytical aspects of philately. These may be very important because the name of books and papers are often not indicative of details of their contents.
Absorption/ReflectionColorimetryColorimetry of Overprints
CompositionComputer GraphicsElectron Microscopy
Environmental Effects on Philatelic MaterialsFormulationGum Analysis
Infrared and FTIRInkOverprints, Movable Type
Paper SciencePIXEPhotomicrography/Microsocpy
XRDXRFWet Chemical Analysis
ChromatograhyGas Chromatography-Mass SpecMass Spec
Post MarksVSC 6000/8000Luminescence
Floatation DensityPerforationsPigments

Aceto, Maurizio, Angelo Agostino, Gaia Fenoglio, Monica Gulmini, Valentina Bianco, Eleonora PellizziNon invasive analysis of miniature paintings: Proposal for an analytical protocolSpectrochimica Acta Part A 91 (2012) pp. 352- 359
Adema, KeesHolland's Track-Boat Markings: A Philatelic Conundrum SolvedCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 87(5) 2008 pp. 291-302
Akyuz, Tanil and Sevim AkyuzInvestigations on Empire series postage stamps of Ottomans (printed 1880-1890) by vibrational spectroscopic and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniquesVibrational Spectroscopy 89 2017. pp. 37-43
Allen, James A. and Thomas LeraThe U.S. 1851 3¢ Stamp: Color, Chemistry, and ChangesIAP I pp 71-82
Araki, Shuki, E. Kondo,T. Shibata, T. Yokota, M.Suzuki, T.Hirashita, K.Yamaguchi, H.Matsumoto and Y.MuraseAnalysis of Pigments in the Printing Inks of the First Japanese Postage Stamps, the Hand-Engraved IssuesBull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.,89, pp 595-602
Barwis, John and Harry BrittainUnited States 24¢ Purple 1870-1875, Progress Report on a Philatelic EnigmaIAP III
Barwis, John H and Harry G. BrittainInk Composition of the U.S. 3¢ stamps of 1870-1883IAP II pp 49-56
Bower, Nathan W., Conor J.K. Blanchet and Michael S. EpsteinNondestructive Determination of the Age of 20th-Century Oil-Binder Ink Prints Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR): A Case Study with Postage Stamps from the Lodz GhettoApplied Spectroscopy 2016, Vol. 70(1) pp 162-173
Brittain, Harry G.Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th CenturyApplied Spectroscopy 2016, Vol. 70(1) 128-136
Brittain, Harry G.Forensic Analysis: Composition of Ink and Paper of the 1c 1861 Stamp The Chronicle of the U.S. Classic Postal Issues 239 vol 65(3), pp 264-271
Brittain, Harry G.Forensic Studies of Stamps Issued by the Confederate States of America, Part VI. The Steel-Plate Engraved 20-Cent George Washington IssueThe Confederate Philatelist Vol. 59(4) 4th Quarter, 2014 pp 5-11
Burgioa, Lucia, Robin J. H. Clark and Richard R. HarkRaman microscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis of pigments on medieval and Renaissance Italian manuscript cuttingsPNAS (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences USA ) 2010 107 (13) pp. 5726-5731
Burkhardt, AndreasNew Method to Identify FakesFakes, Forgeries & Experts Journal 1 pp 113-120
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelNeue Forschungsergebnisse dank Röntgendiagnostik (Teil 2) (New research results thanks to X-ray diagnostics (part 2)Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2005 12 pp 502-
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelA New Approach to Philatelic Examination: Non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence AnalysisCollectors Club Philatelist 2008 Vol. 87(3) pp 163-175
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelNeue Forschungsergebnisse dank Röntgendiagnostik (Teil 3) (New research results thanks to X-ray diagnostics (part 3)Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2006 3 pp 90-92
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelNeue Forschungsergebnisse dank Röntgendiagnostik (Teil 1) (New research results thanks to X-ray diagnostics (part 1))Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2005 10 pp 366-367
Burkhardt, Andreas and Roger SchmidtBasler (Gift) - Tauben nach 150 Jahren entlarvt (Basler (poison) - doves debunked after 150 years)Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2000 12 pp 615-621
Castro, Kepa, Benito Abalos, Irantzu Martinez-Arkarazo,Nestor Etxebarria and Juan Manuel MadariagaScientific examination of classic Spanish stamps with colour error, a non-invasive micro-Raman and micro-XRF approach: The King Alfonso XIII (1889-1901 ''Pelon'') 15 cents definitive issueJournal of Cultural Heritage 9 (2008) pp.189-195
Castro, Kepa, Maite Pérez-Alonso, María Dolores Rodríguez-Laso, Nestor Etxebarria, Juan Manuel MadariagaNon-invasive and non-destructive micro-XRF and micro-Raman analysis of a decorative wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th centuryAnal Bioanal Chem (2007) 387 pp. 847-860
Caswell, Lyman R.Evaluation of Forensic Methods for Overprint AnalysisCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 91, No. 1 (2012). pp. 35-45
Cesareo, Roberto and Antonio BrunettiX-ray fluorescence-analysis of 19th century stampsX-Ray Spectrom. 2008, 37. pp. 260-264
Charles, Jr., Harry K. Exploring Color Mysteries in the United States Large and Small Numeral Postage Due stamps using X-ray Fluorescence SpectrometryIAP III
Cipolla II, Roland HDiscovery: Bisected Use of One-cent 1851 StampThe Chronicle of the U.S. Classic Postal Issues, 237, 65(1) 2013. pp 37-47
Clementi, C, B. Doherty, P.L. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B.G. Brunetti and A. SgamellottiVibrational and electronic properties of painting lakesAppl. Phys. A 92, 2008 pp. 25-33
Clementi, C., B. Foherty, P.L. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B.G. Brunetti and A. SgamellottiVibrational and electronic properties of painting lakesAppl. Phys. A 92, 2008, pp. 25-33
Corbeil, Marie-Claude, Jean-Pierre Charland and Elizabeth A. MoffattThe characterization of cobat violet pigmentsStudies in Conservation 47, 2002 pp. 237-249
Etchart, CarlosUse of X-ray spectrometry as an auxiliary in the expertise of postal itemsFundación Bose, No 7, 2005
Eubanks, Gordon and Harry BrittainAnalysis of Pigment Composition of the U.S. 5c 1847 IssueIAP II pp 131-132
Ferrer, Nuria and Anna VilaFourier transform infrared spectroscopy applied to ink characterization of one-penny postage stamps printed 1841-1880Analytica Chimica Acta 555 (2006). pp. 161-166
Gervais, Claire, Marie-Angelique Languille, Solenn Reguer, Martine Gillet, Sebastien Pelletier, Chantal Garnier, Edward P. Vicenzia and Loic BertrandWhy does Prussian blue fade? Understanding the role(s) of the substrateJ. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2013, 28, pp. 1600-1609
Glazer, MylesThe King George V High-Value Stamps of Bermuda, 1917-1938 (Book,Chapter 3)Marblehead, MA, 1994
Glazer, Myles and Jeffrey DowAn X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation and Analysis of the 12/6 King George VI Stamps of BermudaThe American Philatelist, June 1983. pp. 512-513
Gómez-Jeria, Juan S., Ernesto Clavijo, J.J. Cárcamo-Vega and Sebastián GutiérrezAn infrared and SEM study of the margins of some German hyperinflation postage stampsResearch Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 9(2) 2018. pp. 870-891
Hahn, Joseph D.Originals and Reprints of Seebeck Issues: A Scientific Method of ClassificationThe Seebecker, 4(1), June 1992 pp ?
Jelovica Badovinac, Ivana, N.Orlic, C.Lofrumento, J., Dobrinic, M.OrlicdSpectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in CroatiaNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. section A (0168-9002) 619, 1/3; pp 487-490
Judge, Richard H.Chemistry of Aniline inks, 2-cent Admiral Issues of CanadaIAP III
Judge, Richard H.The Admiral Issue of Canada: A Colorimetric and XRF Study of the Carmine 2¢ IssueIAP II pp 21-30
Kravitz, Mel and Harry Hagendorf Using forensic testing of ink on a postal history item when historical expertizing methods fail.Collectors Club Philatelist, Jan-Feb 2018. pp. 1-18
Lera, ThomasIn the National Postal Museum, Research: Scientific Equipment at the NPMCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 91(3) 2012 pp. 174-178
Lera, ThomasThe Use of X-ray Fluorescence in Detecting Philatelic ForgeriesIAP II pp 133-134
Lera, Thomas, Jennifer Giaccai and Nicole LittleA Scientific Analysis of the First Issues of Chile 1853-1862, London PrintingIAP I pp 19-33
Liston, Edward M.Scientific Examination of a New Venezuelan "Color Error"Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 91(3) 2005 pp. 163-167
Liston, Edward M.A Scientific Investigation of the 'Pink' Problem United States 1861-1898 3c Scott Numbers 64 and 65The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 90(2). pp. 269-284
Liston, Edward M.Special X-ray techniques for examining stamps and coversFakes Forgeries Experts, No 6, May 2003 pp 111-117
Lyons, LarryUsing the Bruker XRF to Distinguish the Six Different Printings of the U.S. Newspaper Stamp Designs N4 and N5IAP III
Mahmoud, Hussein H Marey Investigations by Raman microscopy, ESEM and FTIR-ATR of wall paintings from Qasr el-Ghuieta temple, Kharga Oasis, EgyptHeritage Science 2014, 2:18 pp. 1-11
McKee, ArchiePaper and Color Varieties of the People's Republic of China 'Workers and Soldiers' Definitive Set of 1955-1961IAP II pp 9-19
Melendez-Perez, Jose Javier, Deleon Nascimento Correa, Vinicius Veri Hernandes, Damila Rodrigues de Morais, Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira, Wanderley de Souza, Jandyson Machado Santos and Marcos Nogueira EberlinForensic Application of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the Discrimination of Authentic and Counterfeit Revenue StampsApplied Spectroscopy 2016, Vol. 70(11). pp. 1910-1915
Milks, John E. The 1898 map stamp: colour originsBNA Topics 60(2) 2003. pp 34-37
Milks, John E. and Robert L. KugelX-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Early Canadian Stamps (1851-1897) Part 3. Six Cent Large QueenBNA Topics 50(5) 1993. pp 28-31
Milks, John E. and Robert L. KugelThe Use of X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis to Characterize Printings of Early Canadian Stamps ( 1851-1897)Maple Leafs 22(3) 1991. pp 83-89
Milks, John E. and Robert L. KugelThe Use of X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis to Characterize Printings of Early Canadian Stamps ( 1851-1897)- Part 2.Maple Leafs 22(4) 1991. pp 133-136
Moreira dos Santos, Fernando Silva Non Desctructive Analyses: Creating Standards For Imperial Brazilian Stamps From A Case Study Of Cottons EssaysIAP III
Najjar, Abed HabibForensic Analysis of Great Britain 1858-1879. 1d Plate 77 Stamps on CoverIAP I pp 56-70
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises Questions (Part 2)The GB Journal Vol. 47(5) 2009. pp. 98-112
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises Questions (Part 3)The GB Journal Vol. 47(6) 2009. pp. 131-142
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises QuestionsCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 87(5), 2008 pp. 269-284
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. Questions, and Possible Answers, ConcludedCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 87(6), 2008 pp. 333-345
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises QuestionsThe GB Journal Vol. 47(4) 2009. pp. 25-31
Neunteufel, RobertSpectroscopic Examinations of Stamps' Colours for Age Assessment and AuthenticationFakes Forgeries Experts, No 6, May 2003 pp. 147-156
Odenweller, Robert P.New Zealand: Inks Used for the Early Chalon HeadsCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 88(4) 2009 pp. 246-250
Pinto, Catarina MonteiroA Forensic (Chemical) Analysis of Portuguese Postage Stamps (1857-1909)Departamento de Química, Universidade de Coimbra
Pinto, Catarine and J. Sérgio Seixas de MeloThe molecules of color in Portuguese postage stamps (1857-1909)Pure Appl. Chem. 90(3) 2018. pp. 435-445
Prelss, Ivor L. and Stephen RobleRadioisotope X-ray Fluorescence in PhilatelyInd. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 1982, 21 pp. 676-678
Rosi, Francesca, Aviva Burnstock, Klaas Jan Van den Berg, Costanza Miliania, Brunetto Giovanni Brunetti, Antonio SgamellottiA non-invasive XRF study supported by multivariate statistical analysis and reflectance FTIR to assess the composition of modern painting materialsSpectrochimica Acta Part A 71 (2009) pp. 1655-1662
Samain, Louise, Fernande Grandjean, Gary J. Long, Pauline Martinetto, Pierre Bordet, and David StrivayRelationship between the Synthesis of Prussian Blue Pigments, Their Color, Physical Properties, and Their Behavior in Paint LayersJ. Phys. Chem. C 2013, 117, pp. 9693-9712
Sanchez, Hector Jorge and Maria Cecilia ValentinuzziAuthentication of postal pieces by spatially resolved x-ray fluorescence analysisX-Ray Spectrom. 2006 35 pp. 379-382
Schwab, Nicolas V., José Augusto Da-Col, Peter Meyer, Maria I. M. S. Bueno and Marcos N. EberlinEnergy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Profile of Some Brazilian Postage StampsJ. Braz. Chem. Soc., 27(7) 2016 pp. 1305-1310
Sistach, M. Carme, Nuria Ferrer and M.T. Romero Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to the Analysis of Ancient ManuscriptsRestaurator 19 1998 pp. 173-186
Thomsen, Volker Basic Fundamental Parameters in X-Ray FluorescenceSpectroscopy 22(5) (2007) pp. 46-50
Thy, PeterThe Vermilion Ink Used by McCorquodale for the 1889-90 British Bechuanaland Registration EnvelopesCollectors Club Philatelist Volume 98(3) 2019 pp.84-98
Tomasini, E., G. Siracusano and M.S. MaierSpectroscopic, morphological and chemical characterization of historic pigments based on carbon. Paths for the identification of an artistic pigmentMicrochemical Journal 102 (2012) pp. 28- 37
Vila, Anna, Nuria Ferrer and Jose F. GarciaColored inks analysis and differentiation: A first step in artistic contemporary prints discriminationAnalytica Chimica Acta 588 2007 pp. 96-107
White, R. H.Application of Electron Microscope and X-Ray Analyses to Identification Techniques for Stamp and Proof Papers. Part IThe United States Specialist 710 Apr 89 pp. 187-193
White, R. H.Application of Electron Microscope and X-Ray Analyses to Identification Techniques for Stamp and Proof Papers. Part IIThe United States Specialist 710 Jun 89 pp. 299-304
White, R. H.Application of Electron Microscope and X-Ray Analyses to Identification Techniques for Stamp and Proof Papers. Part IIIThe United States Specialist 710 Aug 89 pp. 419-427
Youssefi, JoeApplication of Advanced Tools to Persian PhilatelyIAP II pp 137-137
Zieba-Palus, Janina and Beata M. TrzcinskaEstablishing of Chemical Composition of Printing InkJ Forensic Sci., 56(3) 2011 pp. 819-21