Reference Library - Ink

The links below to references in the literature which include analytical aspects of philately. These may be very important because the name of books and papers are often not indicative of details of their contents.
Absorption/ReflectionColorimetryColorimetry of Overprints
CompositionComputer GraphicsElectron Microscopy
Environmental Effects on Philatelic MaterialsFormulationGum Analysis
Infrared and FTIRInkOverprints, Movable Type
Paper SciencePIXEPhotomicrography/Microsocpy
XRDXRFWet Chemical Analysis
ChromatograhyGas Chromatography-Mass SpecMass Spec
Post MarksVSC 6000/8000Luminescence
Floatation DensityPerforationsPigments

Aceto, Maurizio, Angelo Agostino, Gaia Fenoglio, Monica Gulmini, Valentina Bianco, Eleonora PellizziNon invasive analysis of miniature paintings: Proposal for an analytical protocolSpectrochimica Acta Part A 91 (2012) pp. 352- 359
Akyuz, Tanil and Sevim AkyuzInvestigations on Empire series postage stamps of Ottomans (printed 1880-1890) by vibrational spectroscopic and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniquesVibrational Spectroscopy 89 2017. pp. 37-43
Allen, James A. and Thomas LeraThe U.S. 1851 3¢ Stamp: Color, Chemistry, and ChangesIAP I pp 71-82
Araki, Shuki, E. Kondo,T. Shibata, T. Yokota, M.Suzuki, T.Hirashita, K.Yamaguchi, H.Matsumoto and Y.MuraseAnalysis of Pigments in the Printing Inks of the First Japanese Postage Stamps, the Hand-Engraved IssuesBull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.,89, pp 595-602
Bala, W., M. Wojdyla, M. Rebarz, M. Szybowic, M. Drozdowski, A. Grodzicki, P. PiszczekInfluence of central metal atom in MPc (M = Cu, Zn, Mg, Co) on Raman, FT-IR, absorbance, reflectance, and photoluminescence spectraJournal of Optoelectonics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2009, pp 264 - 269
Barwis, John H and Harry G. BrittainInk Composition of the U.S. 3¢ stamps of 1870-1883IAP II pp 49-56
Bower, Nathan W., Conor J.K. Blanchet and Michael S. EpsteinNondestructive Determination of the Age of 20th-Century Oil-Binder Ink Prints Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR): A Case Study with Postage Stamps from the Lodz GhettoApplied Spectroscopy 2016, Vol. 70(1) pp 162-173
Boyle, Erin S.n Nathan A. Neff-Mallon, Jonathan D. Handali, and John C. WrightResonance IR: A Coherent Multidimensional Analogue of Resonance RamanJ. Phys. Chem. A 2014, 118, pp. 3112-3119
Brinkley, Daniel W.Examination and Analysis of the Inks used to Print the 1851 3-cent Stamp Using a Scanning Electron Microscope IAP IV pp 21-30
Brittain, Harry G, Kevin G. LowtherPF and APEX Authenticate Scott 416a on Cover; Brown-Yellow Shades Found Among Scott 433The United States Specialist 1091. 92(1) 2021 pp. 26-34
Brittain, Harry G.Infrared Spectroscopic and X-Ray Diffraction Studies of the Typographed Confederate 5¢ StampsIAP I pp 47-55
Brittain, Harry G.Forensic Studies of Stamps Issued by the Confederate States of America Part II. The Engraved 2-Cent Andrew Jackson IssueThe Confederate Philatelist Vol. 58 (3) July-September 2013 pp 5-13
Brittain, Harry G.Forensic Studies of Stamps Issued by the Confederate States of America, Part VI. The Steel-Plate Engraved 20-Cent George Washington IssueThe Confederate Philatelist Vol. 59(4) 4th Quarter, 2014 pp 5-11
Brittain, Harry G.Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th CenturyApplied Spectroscopy 2016, Vol. 70(1) 128-136
Brittain, Harry G.Forensic Analysis: Composition of Ink and Paper of the 1c 1861 Stamp The Chronicle of the U.S. Classic Postal Issues 239 vol 65(3), pp 264-271
Brittain, Harry G.Forensic Studies of Stamps Issued by the Confederate States of America. Part I. The Typographed 5-cent Blue Jefferson Davis IssuesThe Confederate Philatelist Vol. 58(2) April-June 2013. pp 5-15
Brittain, Harry G.Forensic Studies of Stamps Issued by the Confederate States of America, Part V. The Steel-Plate Engraved, 10-Cent Jefferson Davis Type II IssueThe Confederate Philatelist Vol. 59(2) 2nd Quarter, 2014 pp 5-11
Brittain, Harry G.Further Invesitgation into the Printing Ink Pigments of Scott #416 and Scott #415aThe United States Specialist 91(8) 2020 pp. 346-353
Brittain, Harry G.Use of X-ray Diffraction and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for the Study of Paper and Ink in Postage StampsIAP IV pp 1-6
Brittain, Harry G. Evolution of the Ink and Paper Composition in the Stamps of the 1893 Columbian IssuesIAP IV pp 7-12
Brittain, Harry G. and Patricia A. KaufmannForensic Studies of Stamps Issued by the Confederate States of America, Part III. The Copper-Plate Engraved 10-Cent Jefferson Davis Issues.The Confederate Philatelist Vol. 58 (4) 4th Quarter, 2013 pp 5-12
Brittain, Harry G., Kevin G. LowtherFTIR Spectroscopy Used to Analyze Brown-Yellow Washington-FranklinsThe United States Specialist 90(2) 2019 pp. 61-71
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelNeue Forschungsergebnisse dank Röntgendiagnostik (Teil 3) (New research results thanks to X-ray diagnostics (part 3)Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2006 3 pp 90-92
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelNeue Forschungsergebnisse dank Röntgendiagnostik (Teil 1) (New research results thanks to X-ray diagnostics (part 1))Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2005 10 pp 366-367
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelNeue Forschungsergebnisse dank Röntgendiagnostik (Teil 2) (New research results thanks to X-ray diagnostics (part 2)Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2005 12 pp 502-
Burkhardt, Andreas and Kurt KimmelA New Approach to Philatelic Examination: Non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence AnalysisCollectors Club Philatelist 2008 Vol. 87(3) pp 163-175
Burkhardt, Andreas and Roger SchmidtBasler (Gift) - Tauben nach 150 Jahren entlarvt (Basler (poison) - doves debunked after 150 years)Schweizerishe Briefmarkenzeitung 2000 12 pp 615-621
Castro, Kepa, Benito Abalos, Irantzu Martinez-Arkarazo,Nestor Etxebarria and Juan Manuel MadariagaScientific examination of classic Spanish stamps with colour error, a non-invasive micro-Raman and micro-XRF approach: The King Alfonso XIII (1889-1901 ''Pelon'') 15 cents definitive issueJournal of Cultural Heritage 9 (2008) pp.189-195
Caswell, Lyman R.Evaluation of Forensic Methods for Overprint AnalysisCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 91, No. 1 (2012). pp. 35-45
Caswell, Lyman R.Reflectance Spectroscopy of Colored OverprintsIAP I pp 101-107
Cesareo, Roberto and Antonio BrunettiX-ray fluorescence-analysis of 19th century stampsX-Ray Spectrom. 2008, 37. pp. 260-264
Chaplin, Tracey D., Alicia Jurado-Lopez, Robin J. H. Clark, and David R. BeechIdentification by Raman microscopy of pigments on early postage stamps: distinction between original 1847 and 1858-1862, forged and reproduction postage stamps of MauritiusJ. Raman Spectrosc. 2004, 35. pp. 600-604
Chaplin, Tracey D., Robin J. H. Clark and David R. BeechComparison of genuine (1851-1852 AD) and forged or reproduction Hawaiian Missionary stamps using Raman microscopyJ. Raman Spectrosc. 2002, 33. pp. 424-428
Chaplin, Tracey D., Robin J. H. Clark, David Jacobs, Kristian Jensen and Gregory D. SmithThe Gutenberg Bibles: Analysis of the Illuminations and Inks Using Raman SpectroscopyAnal. Chem. 2005, 77, 3611-3622
Charles, Jr., Harry K. Exploring Color Mysteries in the United States Large and Small Numeral Postage Due stamps using X-ray Fluorescence SpectrometryIAP III
Charles, Jr., Harry K. 1894 and 1895 Series First Bureau Postage Due Stamps: Questions of Color, Fluorescence, and Early Use: Part 1 IAP IV pp 79-92
Charles, Jr., Harry K. 1894 and 1895 Series First Bureau Postage Due Stamps: Questions of Color, Fluorescence, and Early Use: Part 2IAP IV pp 93-102
Cibulskis, John MAnalysis of Color Varieties Using Scanned ImagesGerman Postal Specialist, May 2015. pp. 201-220
Cipolla II, Roland HDiscovery: Bisected Use of One-cent 1851 StampThe Chronicle of the U.S. Classic Postal Issues, 237, 65(1) 2013. pp 37-47
Clementi, C, B. Doherty, P.L. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B.G. Brunetti and A. SgamellottiVibrational and electronic properties of painting lakesAppl. Phys. A 92, 2008 pp. 25-33
Clementi, Catia, Francesca Rosi, Aldo Romani, Riccardo Vivani, Brunetto G. Brunetti and Costanza MilianibPhotoluminescence Properties of Zinc Oxide in Paints: A Study of the Effect of Self-Absorption and PassivationApplied Spectroscopy 2012 Vol 66(10) pp. 1233-41
Clementi, Catia, Francesca Rosi, Aldo Romani, Riccardo Vivani, Brunetto G. Brunetti and Costanza MilianiPhotoluminescence Properties of Zinc Oxide in Paints: A Study of the Effect of Self-Absorption and PassivationApplied Spectroscopy 66(10), 2012 pp. 1233-1241
Comelli, Daniela, Cosimo D'Andrea, Gianluca Valentini, Rinaldo Cubeddu, Chiara Colombo and Lucia TonioloFluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy as tools for nondestructive analysis of works of artApplied Optics 43(1) 2004. pp.2175-83.
Corbeil, Marie-Claude, Jean-Pierre Charland and Elizabeth A. MoffattThe characterization of cobat violet pigmentsStudies in Conservation 47, 2002 pp. 237-249
DeBlois, Diane and Robert Dalton HarrisPrexies and the interaction of colorThe Congress Book 2011 Original philatelic papers presented by invitation. Seventy-Seventh American Philatelic Congress August 12, 2011. APS StampShow 2011 Columbus, Ohio", Ed. Kenneth Trettin, 2011
Eubanks, Gordon and Harry BrittainAnalysis of Pigment Composition of the U.S. 5c 1847 IssueIAP II pp 131-132
Ferrer, NuriaFT-IR Spectroscopy and Microscopy with a Diamond Cell Applied to Forensic and Industrial SamplesMikrochim, Acta [Suppl.] 14 (1997). pp. 329-332
Ferrer, Nuria and Anna VilaFourier transform infrared spectroscopy applied to ink characterization of one-penny postage stamps printed 1841-1880Analytica Chimica Acta 555 (2006). pp. 161-166
Gill, Thomas E.Analysis of Postage Stamps by Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission SpectrometryIAP I pp 93-90
Glazer, Myles and Jeffrey DowAn X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation and Analysis of the 12/6 King George VI Stamps of BermudaThe American Philatelist, June 1983. pp. 512-513
Hahn, Joseph D.Originals and Reprints of Seebeck Issues: A Scientific Method of ClassificationThe Seebecker, 4(1), June 1992 pp ?
Herendeen, David L.Philatelic Shade Discrimination Based on Measured Colour - CorrigendaLondon Philatelist May. 2011 (120). pp.153
Herendeen, David L., James A. Allen and Thomas LeraPhilatelic Shade Discrimination Based on Measured ColourLondon Philatelist Apr. 2011 (120). pp.105-117
Hofmeyr JanA Quantitative Color Analysis of the US 3c 1861 IssueIAP IV pp 59-70
Huynh, Vivian, Ubisha Joshi, Jennifer M. Leveille, Teresa D. Golden and Guido F. VerbeckNanomanipulation-coupled to nanospray mass spectrometry applied to document and ink analysisForensic Science International 242 (2014) 150-156
Imperio, Eleonora, Gabriele Giancane and Ludovico Valli Spectral characterization of postage stamp printing inks by means of Raman spectroscopyAnalyst, 2015, 140. pp. 1702-1710
Johnson, Chelsea E., Paul Martin, Katherine A. Roberts, Tatiana Trejos, Ruthmara Corzo, Jose R. Almirall and Alan M. SaferThe Capability of Raman Microspectroscopy to Differentiate Printing InksJ Forensic Sci., 63(1) 2018 pp. 66-79
Jones, Roger W., Robert B. Cody and John F. McClellandDifferentiating writing inks using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.Journal of Forensic Sciences. 51(4) 2006 pp :915-918
Judge, Richard H.Chemistry of Aniline inks, 2-cent Admiral Issues of CanadaIAP III
Judge, Richard H.The Admiral Issue of Canada: A Colorimetric and XRF Study of the Carmine 2¢ IssueIAP II pp 21-30
Judge, Richard H.Philatelic Application of Wavelength Resolved FluorescenceIAP IV pp 71-78
Kettle, Sidney F. A., Eliano Diana, Edoardo M. C. Marchese, Enrico Boccaleri and Pier Luigi StanghelliniThe vibrational spectra of the cyanide ligand revisited: the v(CN) infrared and Raman spectroscopy of Prussian blue and its analoguesJ. Raman Spectrosc. 2011, 42, pp.2006-2014
Kher, Ashwini, Mary Mulholland, Elinore Green, Brian ReedyForensic classification of ballpoint pen inks using high performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy with principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysisVibrational Spectroscopy 40 (2006) pp. 270-277
Kunjappu, JoyInk chemistry:Chemistry World: 28 Feb 2003:
LaPorte, Gerald M. and Joseh C. StephensAnalysis Techniques Used for the Forensic Examination of Writing and Printing InksForensic Chemistry Handbook, First Edition. Edited by Lawrence Kobilinsky, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2012. Chapter 6 pp.225-250
Lera, ThomasThe Use of X-ray Fluorescence in Detecting Philatelic ForgeriesIAP II pp 133-134
Lera, ThomasColorimetric Analysis of an Enhanced Cancel on a Mauritius 1d StampFakes Forgeries Experts, No. 14, April 2011, pp.103-104
Lera, Thomas, Jennifer Giaccai and Nicole LittleA Scientific Analysis of the First Issues of Chile 1853-1862, London PrintingIAP I pp 19-33
Liston, Edward M.Scientific Examination of a New Venezuelan "Color Error"Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 91(3) 2005 pp. 163-167
Liston, Edward M.A New Technique for Analyzing the Optical Spectra of Stamp Inks: U.S. 1861 StampsIAP II pp 135-136
Liston, Edward M.Special X-ray techniques for examining stamps and coversFakes Forgeries Experts, No 6, May 2003 pp 111-117
Liston, Edward M.A Scientific Investigation of the 'Pink' Problem United States 1861-1898 3c Scott Numbers 64 and 65The Collectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 90(2). pp. 269-284
Liston, Edward M.A New Technique for Analyzing The Optical Spectrum of Stamp Inks: A U.S. 1861 Case StudyCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 95(4) 2016. pp. 244-250
Lyerla, Timothy A.The Use of Tonal Histograms for the Study of Stamp ShadesIAP III
Lyerla, Timothy A.Scanning for Stamp ShadesAmerican Philatelist July 2014. pp. 666-670
Lyerla, Timothy A.Shade Verifications Using Tonal Histogram AnalysesIAP II pp 87-94
Lyons, LarryUsing the Bruker XRF to Distinguish the Six Different Printings of the U.S. Newspaper Stamp Designs N4 and N5IAP III
McKee, ArchiePaper and Color Varieties of the People's Republic of China 'Workers and Soldiers' Definitive Set of 1955-1961IAP II pp 9-19
Melendez-Perez, Jose Javier, Deleon Nascimento Correa, Vinicius Veri Hernandes, Damila Rodrigues de Morais, Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira, Wanderley de Souza, Jandyson Machado Santos and Marcos Nogueira EberlinForensic Application of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the Discrimination of Authentic and Counterfeit Revenue StampsApplied Spectroscopy 2016, Vol. 70(11). pp. 1910-1915
Milks, John E. The 1898 map stamp: colour originsBNA Topics 60(2) 2003. pp 34-37
Milks, John E. and Robert L. KugelX-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Early Canadian Stamps (1851-1897) Part 3. Six Cent Large QueenBNA Topics 50(5) 1993. pp 28-31
Milks, John E. and Robert L. KugelThe Use of X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis to Characterize Printings of Early Canadian Stamps ( 1851-1897)Maple Leafs 22(3) 1991. pp 83-89
Milks, John E. and Robert L. KugelThe Use of X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis to Characterize Printings of Early Canadian Stamps ( 1851-1897)- Part 2.Maple Leafs 22(4) 1991. pp 133-136
Moreira dos Santos, Fernando Silva Non Desctructive Analyses: Creating Standards For Imperial Brazilian Stamps From A Case Study Of Cottons EssaysIAP III
Najjar, Abed HabibForensic Analysis of Great Britain 1858-1879. 1d Plate 77 Stamps on CoverIAP I pp 56-70
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises Questions (Part 2)The GB Journal Vol. 47(5) 2009. pp. 98-112
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises Questions (Part 3)The GB Journal Vol. 47(6) 2009. pp. 131-142
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises QuestionsCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 87(5), 2008 pp. 269-284
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. Questions, and Possible Answers, ConcludedCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 87(6), 2008 pp. 333-345
Najjar, Abed HabibGreat Britain: The 1858-1879 1d Rose-Red Plate 77. A Discovery that Raises QuestionsThe GB Journal Vol. 47(4) 2009. pp. 25-31
Neunteufel, RobertSpectroscopic Examinations of Stamps' Colours for Age Assessment and AuthenticationFakes Forgeries Experts, No 6, May 2003 pp. 147-156
Odenweller, Robert P.New Zealand: Inks Used for the Early Chalon HeadsCollectors Club Philatelist, Vol. 88(4) 2009 pp. 246-250
Oliaiy, P., D. Agha-Aligol, F. Shokouhi and M. Lamehi-RachtiAnalysis of Iranian postage stamps belonging to the Qajar dynasty (18th-20th Century's) by micro-PIXEX-Ray Spectrom. 2009, 38 pp. 479-486
Pinto, Catarina MonteiroA Forensic (Chemical) Analysis of Portuguese Postage Stamps (1857-1909)Departamento de Química, Universidade de Coimbra
Pinto, Catarine and J. Sérgio Seixas de MeloThe molecules of color in Portuguese postage stamps (1857-1909)Pure Appl. Chem. 90(3) 2018. pp. 435-445
Poslusny, Matthew and Kenneth DaughertyA Novel Approach to Looking at StampsThe American Philatelist. Aug. 1990. pp.722
Pottier, Fabien, Anne Michelin, Christine Andraud, Fabrice Goubard, and Bertrand LavedrineCharacterizing the Intrinsic Fluorescence Properties of Historical Painting Materials: The Case Study of a Sixteenth-Century Mesoamerican ManuscriptApplied Spectroscopy 72(4) 2018 pp. 573-583
Prelss, Ivor L. and Stephen RobleRadioisotope X-ray Fluorescence in PhilatelyInd. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 1982, 21 pp. 676-678
Romani, Aldo, Cattia Cleminti, Costanza Miliani and Gianna FavaroFluorescence Spectroscopy: A Powerful Technique for the Noninvasive Characterization of ArtworkAccounts of Chemical Research 43(6) 2010 pp. 837-846
Romero, M. T. and N. FerrerFourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to the Characterisation of 17th-20th Century Calcographic and Xylographic InksMikrochim. Acta 131 (1999) pp. 237-245
Sanchez, Hector Jorge and Maria Cecilia ValentinuzziAuthentication of postal pieces by spatially resolved x-ray fluorescence analysisX-Ray Spectrom. 2006 35 pp. 379-382
Schwab, Nicolas V., José Augusto Da-Col, Peter Meyer, Maria I. M. S. Bueno and Marcos N. EberlinEnergy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Profile of Some Brazilian Postage StampsJ. Braz. Chem. Soc., 27(7) 2016 pp. 1305-1310
Sharkey, John B.Chemistry of Postage Stamps: Dyes, Phosphors, AdhesivesJournal of Chemical Education 64(3) 1987, pp. 195-200
Shugar, Aaron N. Handheld Macro-SRF scanning: Development of Collimators for Sub-mm ResolutionIAP IV pp 13-20
Silva, Carlos Eduardo, Luciana P. Silva, Howell G. M. Edwards, Luiz Fernando C. de OliveiraDiffuse reflection FTIR spectral database of dyes and pigmentsAnal Bioanal Chem (2006) 386 pp. 2183-2191
Thy, PeterThe Vermilion Ink Used by McCorquodale for the 1889-90 British Bechuanaland Registration EnvelopesCollectors Club Philatelist Volume 98(3) 2019 pp.84-98
Tomasini, E., G. Siracusano and M.S. MaierSpectroscopic, morphological and chemical characterization of historic pigments based on carbon. Paths for the identification of an artistic pigmentMicrochemical Journal 102 (2012) pp. 28- 37
Tyler, Varro E. and Garnet E. PeckCharacterization of the Genuine Stamps, Reprints, and Forgeriesof the 1867 and 1868 Issues of Roman States by Diffuse Reflectance SpectroscopyAmerican Philatelist June 1978 pp. 580-587
University of KansasThinking about Ink: Composition, History, and Uses
Vila, Anna, Nuria Ferrer and Jose F. GarciaColored inks analysis and differentiation: A first step in artistic contemporary prints discriminationAnalytica Chimica Acta 588 2007 pp. 96-107
Walsh, John M. Newfoundland : 1919 Caribou Issue 15¢ Denomination.Its True Ink Ingerdient Structure DiscoveryMaple Leaves 36 pp. 461-471
Youssefi, JoeApplication of Advanced Tools to Persian PhilatelyIAP II pp 137-137
Zieba-Palus, Janina and Beata M. TrzcinskaEstablishing of Chemical Composition of Printing InkJ Forensic Sci., 56(3) 2011 pp. 819-21